Glucagon is a peptide hormone that is produced by the alpha-cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Glucagon regulates the blood glucose level in concert with insulin by stimulating hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to maintain the homeostasis. It also relaxes the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract.
It has been approved for treatment of severe hypoglycemia in patients with Type I & II diabetes. It is also used as a diagnostic aid in the radiological examination of stomach, duodenum, small intestine and colon when diminished intestinal motility would be advantageous.
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